Post World War 2 Agreements

In Potsdam, the main question was how to deal with Germany. At Yalta, the Soviets had lobbied for Germany to receive heavy reparations after the war, half of which would go to the Soviet Union. While Roosevelt had complied with these demands, Truman and his Secretary of State, James Byrnes, were determined to lessen Germany`s treatment by allowing occupying nations to demand reparations only from their own zone of occupation. Truman and Byrnes promoted this position because they wanted to avoid a repeat of the situation created by the Treaty of Versailles, which had demanded high reparations from Germany after World War I. Many experts agreed that the harsh reparations imposed by the Treaty of Versailles had hampered the German economy and fueled the rise of the Nazis. In Greece, a civil war broke out in 1946 between the Anglo-American-backed royalist forces and the Communist-led forces, with the royalist forces emerging victorious. [79] The United States launched a massive program of military and economic assistance to Greece and neighboring Turkey, fearing that the Soviet Union was on the verge of breaking NATO`s line of defense toward the oil-rich Middle East. On March 12, 1947, in order to gain congressional support for aid, President Truman described aid as the promotion of democracy in defense of the “free world,” a principle that became known as the Truman Doctrine. [80] The big three — Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced by Prime Minister Clement Attlee on July 26), and U.S. President Harry Truman — met from July 17 to 2. He was born in Potsdam, Germany, in 1945 to negotiate the terms of the end of World War II.

After the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin, Churchill and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt had agreed to meet after Germany`s surrender to establish the post-war borders in Europe. Germany capitulated on 8 May 1945 and the Allied leaders agreed to meet in Potsdam this summer to continue the discussions begun at Yalta. Although the Allies remained determined to wage a common war in the Pacific, the absence of a common enemy in Europe led to difficulties in reaching a consensus on post-war reconstruction on the European continent. Even after the Korean War (July 27, 1953), after the withdrawal of France from Indochina (Geneva Conventions of July 20, 1953). July 1954 were rejected by the United States) or after the war in Vietnam, no peace treaty – only armistice agreements – was enacted. In the latter case, after five years of negotiations between the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the National Liberation Front, an agreement was finally reached on January 28, 1973. Although it has the scale and scope of a peace treaty, it was simply an executive agreement that came into effect on the U.S. side with its signature by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and not after Senate approval. The following list contains the ten most important international treaties after World War II.

These treaties consist of a formal and binding written agreement concluded by actors of international law, which in most cases are sovereign States and international organizations. This list contains the most important and influential international treaties after World War II, as well as other information about their purpose and significance. World War II ended American isolationism. The first measures that deterred the United States from neutrality were executive agreements (such as the destroyer-counter-base agreement of 3 September 1940), which allowed for increased aid to England. But it was the extremely important Lend-Lease Act (March 11, 1941) that introduced the United States to the forefront of world diplomacy even before Pearl Harbor, while giving it a completely new form. Franklin Roosevelt`s bold initiatives, combined with the enormous growth of American economic power, led to an unprecedented new form of diplomacy, foreign aid. While traditional diplomacy had been conducted between large and small powers, and Wilsonian diplomacy had established the principle of equality, diplomacy took on a dual character after borrowing. On the one hand, relations between nations considered equal continued to be led by ambassadors. On the other hand, a new form of relationship between two countries has emerged, with one becoming the donor of aid and the other the recipient of aid. Aid, which could be economic, military or technical, was administered by government officials who were not ambassadors and generally depended only nominally on them. Aid agreements have tended to develop in the following ways: first, the passage by Congress of a general bill; secondly, the vote on the funds; thirdly, the aid agreements concluded with the beneficiaries. The abrupt withdrawal of U.S.

support for lend-lease for Britain on September 2, 1945 dealt a severe blow to the new government`s plans. It was not until the completion of the Anglo-American loan from the United States to Great Britain on 15 July 1946 that a certain degree of economic stability was restored. However, the loan was granted mainly to support British foreign spending in the post-war years and not to implement the Labour government`s policy of reforming domestic social protection and nationalising key industries. Although the loan was agreed on reasonable terms, its terms included tax terms that proved detrimental to the pound sterling. From 1946 to 1948, the United Kingdom introduced bread rationing, something it had never done during the war. [1] [2] [3] [4] The immediate post-war period in Europe was dominated by the annexation or transformation of the Soviet Union into Soviet socialist republics.[10][11][12] all countries invaded and annexed by the Red Army and expelling Germans from Central and Eastern Europe. New satellite states were established by the Soviets in Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary[13], [page needed] Czechoslovakia[14], Romania[15],[full source required][16], Albania[17] and East Germany; the last of them was created from the Soviet occupation zone in Germany. [18] Yugoslavia emerged as an independent communist state allied with the Soviet Union but not allied with it, due to the independent character of the military victory of Josip Broz Tito`s supporters during World War II in Yugoslavia.

The Allies created the Far East Commission and the Allied Council for Japan to manage their occupation of that country, while the established Allied Control Council occupied Germany. In accordance with the agreements of the Potsdam Conference, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed the strategically important island of Sakhalin. The Soviets began Operation Osoaviakhim in 1946. The NKVD and Soviet army units effectively deported thousands of army-related technical specialists from the Soviet occupation zone of post-war Germany to the Soviet Union. [102] The Soviets used 92 trains to transport the specialists and their families, or about 10,000 to 15,000 people. [103] Much of the related equipment was also laid at virtually transplanted research and production centers such as the V-2 rocket center moved to Mittelwerk Nordhausen from Germany to the Soviet Union. Among the movers were Helmut Gröttrup and about two hundred mittelwerk scientists and technicians. [104] The staff also came from AEG, BMW`s nozzle drive group, IG Farben`s Leuna chemical plants, Junkers, Schott AG, Siebel, Telefunken and Carl Zeiss AG. [105] Following the war, the Allies created the United Nations, an organization of international cooperation and diplomacy similar to the League of Nations. Members of the United Nations have agreed to ban wars of aggression in order to avoid a third world war. The devastated great powers of Western Europe formed the European Coal and Steel Community, which then developed into the European Economic Community and finally into today`s European Union.

These efforts began mainly as an attempt to avoid another war between Germany and France through economic cooperation and integration, as well as a common market for important natural resources. By the end of the war, the United States was producing about half of the world`s industrial production. The United States, of course, had been spared industrial and civil devastation. In addition, much of the pre-war industry had been transformed into wartime. As a result, the United States, with its industrial and civilian base in a much better state than most of the world, began an economic expansion that has not been seen in human history. The gross domestic product of the United States rose from $228 billion in 1945 to just under $1.7 trillion in 1975. [123] [124] The Charter of the United Nations was established as a means of saving “succeeding generations from the scourge of war.” This resulted from the failure of the League of Nations to resolve the conflicts that led to the Second World War. From then on, as early as 1941, the Allies made a proposal that established a new international body to maintain peace in the post-war world.

The idea of the United Nations began to be articulated in August 1941, when U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter, which proposed a set of principles for international cooperation in the maintenance of peace and security. The term was first officially used on January 1, 1942, when representatives of 26 allied nations met in Washington D.C. and signed the United Nations Declaration endorsing the Atlantic Charter and setting out the Allies` united war objectives. On April 25, 1945, the United Nations Conference on the International Organization met in San Francisco with 50 nations represented. Three months later, during this period, Germany had capitulated, the final Charter of the United Nations was adopted unanimously by the delegates. .